A view of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. File/Reuters
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which 191 signatories review every five years, aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, promote complete disarmament and promote cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
The nations have been gathered at UN headquarters in New York since August 1 participating in a month of negotiations, including a final session that was postponed for several hours on Friday.
In the end, the conference's president, Gustavo Zlauvinen of Argentina, said it was "not in a position to achieve agreement" after Russia took issue with the text.
Russian representative Igor Vishnevetsky said the draft final text, which was more than 30 pages long, lacked "balance."
"Our delegation has one key objection on some paragraphs which are blatantly political in nature," he said, adding that Russia was not the only country to take issue with the text.
According to sources close to the negotiations, Russia was opposed in particular to paragraphs concerning the Ukrainian nuclear power plant in Zaporizhzhia, which is occupied by the Russian military.
The latest draft text had expressed "grave concern" over military activities around Ukrainian power plants, including Zaporizhzhia, as well as over Ukraine's loss of control of such sites and the negative impact on safety.
The signatories discussed a number of other hot-button topics during the conference, including Iran's nuclear program and North Korean nuclear tests.
At the last review conference in 2015, the parties were also unable to reach an agreement on substantive issues.
At the opening of this year's conference, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres warned that the world faced "a nuclear danger not seen since the height of the Cold War."
"Today, humanity is just one misunderstanding, one miscalculation away from nuclear annihilation," Guterres said.
Much of the concern centers on the cooling systems for the plant's nuclear reactors. The systems require power to run, and the plant was temporarily knocked offline Thursday because of what officials said was fire damage to a transmission line.
Antonio Guterres gave the dire warning at the opening of the long-delayed high-level meeting to review the landmark 50-year-old treaty aimed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and eventually achieving a nuclear-free world.
The attacks on Europe's biggest nuclear power plant in the south of Ukraine came as battles raged in the east, where Russian forces pounded Ukrainian positions along the front line President Volodymyr Zelensky said.
Drones could also be heard in the air over the south of the territory for the first time since the truce.
Hamas released two more Israeli women hostages on Thursday with more Palestinian prisoners to be freed under an extended truce that has paused weeks of deadly conflict.
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